Debian chroot on Android
I now use and recommend termux. It is an apt-based Linux system for Android (and ChromeOS apparently). This works much more smoothly than a simple Debian chroot because it interacts properly with the Android permission system.
Sometimes, a simple idea — so simple it can be distilled down to 4 words — can be truly astounding.
For quite a while, I've been considering the best way to ensure the resilience, security, and accessibility of various pieces of personal data. There are several different categories, and no solution will be optimal for all of them. My music collection, for example, is large, non-secret, and largely replaceable (although the thought of dragging that enormous box of CDs out of the garage and reripping them all is pretty daunting!) The music lives on a server in my home, with my own backups. I upload medium bitrate versions to a cloud music service, and I have a low bitrate copy on my laptop and phone. So that's pretty well covered.
A similar scheme covers my photos and videos. They are much less replaceable than music, but fortunately much smaller, so there are a few extra copies kicking about.
Then, I have a few tiny things that I want to keep in sync across various devices. For example, today's todo list, my "blue skies ideas" list, and my password store. I've looked at syncthing, which is an awesome project, and I'm sure I'm going to find a good use for it someday.
But for these things, git is really the obvious solution. Most of them are already git repos, including my password-store, the only missing piece is a git client on my phone. So I was searching for recommendations for Android git clients, and these words jumped out at me:
create a debian image, mount it in your android device and chroot to it
My flabber was well and truly gasted.
It's very straightforward. From some debian instance on which you have root, run:
debootstrap --foreign --arch=armhf jessie jessie
Tar up the resulting tree in jessie, copy it to android, unpack it (ah, but where?), chroot, and then run:
Here are some things I've used: ssh, rsync, dash, bash, the rc shell (which I happen to maintain). All the usual userland tools, mv, chmod, etc. These (of course) are the proper full GNU versions, so you don't keep being bitten by the little discrepancies in, for instance, the busybox versions.
Package management with apt-get and dpkg. And perl, git, nano, vim, update-alternatives (so I never have to see nano again), less, man.
I started installing the pass package, but that pulls in gtk, pango and a whole bunch of other things I'm not going to use. So I downloaded password-store and installed it myself.
The ps command (you need to mount /proc in the chroot of course), top, strace, lsof. You can even strace android processes, it all Just Works. (OK, lsof gets upset because it's inside a chroot and it can't see all the mount points that /proc/mounts says exist. But still.)
I thought it might be fun to run mosh. It installed fine, but then bombed out with a weird error. I went on a bit of a wild goose chase, and concluded (it was late at night) that I needed a fix from the development version. So I cloned the mosh repo on github, installed a whole heap of build tools, compilers, libraries, and built mosh. On my phone!
In fact, the problem was simpler than that, and easily solved by using the stty command to declare my terminal size. And then I had to open up some ports in android's firewall... with iptables of course.
I could go on, but you're getting the idea. In summary, this is not something pretending to be a GNU/Linux system. It's the real deal.
Of course, there are some missing pieces, of which the most serious is the lack of daemons. I've installed etckeeper, but there will be no daily autocommit.
Ping doesn't work, because even a root shell is not allowed to use raw sockets. You can create a user, but it's not able to do much... I'll look at this some more when I have time, but I'm just running everything as root at the moment. Android's systems for users, permissions, and capabilities are entirely unfamiliar to me, although I'm trying to learn.
I made and remade my chroot several times before I was happy with it. Hopefully these notes will make things quicker for you.
First of all, Debian wants a “real” filesystem, which is to say, anything except FAT. Of the existing partitions, an obvious choice would be /data, which on my phone is ext4. Unfortunately, the major major drawback of my phone is that its /data is tiddly, just 1GB, and perennially full. (I did try the chroot on /data, before realising the fatal flaw. One curiosity is that /data is mounted with nodev, so populating /dev fails till you remount without nodev. You might think it would be better to bind mount the real /dev into the chroot anyway, and you might well be right. But I've been running with the /dev made by debootstrap with no problems.)
So it's time to repartition my 32GB SD card. Android apparently doesn't support GPT which is only a minor nuisance. I do hate all that primary / extended / logical nonsense though, it's so 1980s.
Much, much more seriously, it complains bitterly if it finds an SD card without a FAT partition. This is infuriating. The kernel supports ext3 just fine (and ext4 too, at least for partitions on fixed internal storage, although apparently not for the SD card, which makes no sense to me). So, if I insert a card that happens to have an ext3 partition on it, why not just mount it? Or if there's some scenario I'm not aware of that might not work quite right, notify a dialogue that explains and offers to mount the partition anyway. What actually happens is a notification that tells you the SD card is “damaged”, and offers to format it. Arrggh!
(I have reason to believe that the latest versions of Android will countenance SD cards with real file systems, although I need to research this further.)
My next try was a 50MB FAT partition, and the remainder ext3. This largely worked, but it didn't leave anywhere for android to move those apps which are prepared to live on SD card, absolutely vital to squeeze some extra apps onto my old phone.
The final iteration was a 4GB FAT partition, and the rest ext3. Of course, I don't need 28GB for the chroot itself: it starts off well under 1G, and even after installing loads of stuff I'm still under 2G. But I realised that I'd be able to put my music collection on the ext3 partition, which would save the tedious step of renaming everything to comply with FAT restrictions (mainly the prohibition on : in file names). Of course, I can now rsync-over-ssh the music from my laptop, which seems to go quicker than via USB.
Another annoyance is that the ext3 partition on the SD card isn't automatically mounted. I've spent some time in the past trying to find a boot time hook I can use, but with no luck. So I have to do this from the android shell every time my phone reboots, using a helper script cunningly located under the mount point:
root@android:/ # cat /data/ext3/m #!/system/bin/sh mount -t ext3 /dev/block/mmcblk1p5 /data/ext3
Far and away the nicest way to communicate with the chroot is to plug into a laptop or desktop and use adb shell from the Android SDK. At that point, it's scarcely different from sshing to a remote server.
Of course, the whole point of the phone is that it's portable. On the move, I'm using Jack Palevich's Terminal Emulator for Android and Klaus Weidner's Hacker's Keyboard. The keyboard has all the keys you need — Esc, Tab, Ctrl etc — so it's ideal for non-trivial tasks (such as vim!). But the tiny keys are very fiddly on my phone, especially in portrait, so I sometimes stick to my usual keyboard.
I've got a trivial helper script to start my favourite shell under ssh-agent:
root@android:/ # cat /data/ext3/ch #!/system/bin/sh exec chroot /data/ext3/jessie /usr/bin/ssh-agent /usr/bin/rc -l
So I have a fantastic solution to my document and password management problems. And a great ssh client. And a whole new architecture to build my projects on, most of which aren't the sort of thing that it makes much sense to run on a phone, but building in different places is always good for portability.
I'd heard that Android uses a "modified Linux" kernel, so I wasn't really expecting any of this stuff to work properly, let alone tools like strace and lsof. Apparently, though, the changes were folded back into the mainline kernel at the 3.3 release. My (3 year old) phone runs 3.4.5, so presumably this a fairly vanilla kernel.
This is awesome. Google has its faults, but their commitment to free software easily earns them the “least evil” prize among the current Internet quintumvirate. (That's Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon, and Microsoft, for anyone who's been asleep the last few years.)
Realising that, yes, that computer in my pocket is a pukka Linux box has endeared me even further to Android. I'd love to write some apps for it... except I've already got more than enough projects to fill my “copious spare time”!
Update November 2016
A couple of new things I've discovered since writing this article.
First, the debootstrap command is available on Fedora, from the system repository! So you don't need a Debian box to build the initial system image. (Having debootstrap around is also handy for making a Debian container on my desktop.)
Secondly, I think the reason Android won't automatically mount an ext2/3/4 partition is that it has no idea how to map UIDs and GIDs on the filesystem. Any obvious trivial solution, such as “only UID 0 can read or write”, would make it inaccessible to Android processes. Remember, you're not supposed to root your Android device! I've just ordered my next phone, which is supported by CyanogenMod, so it's likely that I'll end up with an OS that is rather more enlightened about users having full control of their devices. Having said that, I don't believe it has an SD slot, so the issue of real FS support won't arise.